银河国际点击登录python 之Tornado

一、Tomado

Tornado 是 FriendFeed 使用的可扩展的非阻塞式 web
服务器及其相关工具的开源版本。这个 Web
框架看起来有些像web.py 或者 Google 的
webapp,不过为了能有效利用非阻塞式服务器环境,这个 Web
框架还包含了一些相关的有用工具 和优化。

Tornado 和现在的主流 Web 服务器框架(包括大多数 Python
的框架)有着明显的区别:它是非阻塞式服务器,而且速度相当快。得利于其
非阻塞的方式和对 epoll 的运用,Tornado
每秒可以处理数以千计的连接,这意味着对于实时 Web 服务来说,Tornado
是一个理想的 Web 框架。我们开发这个 Web 服务器的主要目的就是为了处理
FriendFeed 的实时功能 ——在 FriendFeed
的应用里每一个活动用户都会保持着一个服务器连接。(关于如何扩容
服务器,以处理数以千计的客户端的连接的问题,请参阅 C10K
problem。)

安装:pip3 install Tomado

远吗安装:https:``/``/``pypi.python.org``/``packages``/``source``/``t``/``tornado``/``tornado``-``4.3``.tar.gz

二、快速上手

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web


class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.write("Hello, world")

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
])


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(8888)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

第一步:执行脚本,监听8888端口

第二步:浏览器客户端访问/index—->

第三步:服务器接受请求,并交由对应的类处理请求

第四步:类接收到请求之后,根据请求方式(post/get/delete…..)的不同调用并执行相应的方法

第五步:方法返回值的字符串内容发到浏览器

三、路由系统

路由系统其实就是 url 和 类
的对应关系,这里不同于其他框架,其他很多框架均是 url 对应
函数,Tornado中每个url对应的是一个类。

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web


class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.write("Hello, world")

class StoryHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self, story_id):
        self.write("You requested the story " + story_id)

class BuyHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.write("buy.wupeiqi.com/index")

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
    (r"/story/([0-9]+)", StoryHandler),
])

application.add_handlers('buy.wupeiqi.com$', [
    (r'/index',BuyHandler),
])

if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(80)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

四、模板

Tornao中的模板语言和django中类似,模板引擎将模板文件载入内存,然后将数据嵌入其中,最终获取到一个完整的字符串,再将字符串返回给请求者。

Tornado
的模板支持“控制语句”和“表达语句”,控制语句是使用 {% 和 %} 包起来的
例如 {% if len(items) > 2 %}。表达语句是使用 {{ 和 }} 包起来的,例如 {{ items[0] }}

控制语句和对应的 Python
语句的格式基本完全相同。我们支持 ifforwhile 和 try,这些语句逻辑结束的位置需要用 {% end %} 做标记。还通过 extends 和 block 语句实现了模板继承。这些在 template 模块 的代码文档中有着详细的描述。

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
    <title>老男孩</title>
    <link href="{{static_url("css/common.css")}}" rel="stylesheet" />
    {% block CSS %}{% end %}
</head>
<body>

    <div class="pg-header">

    </div>

    {% block RenderBody %}{% end %}

    <script src="{{static_url("js/jquery-1.8.2.min.js")}}"></script>

    {% block JavaScript %}{% end %}
</body>
</html>

layout.html

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{% extends 'layout.html'%}
{% block CSS %}
    <link href="{{static_url("css/index.css")}}" rel="stylesheet" />
{% end %}

{% block RenderBody %}
    <h1>Index</h1>

    <ul>
    {%  for item in li %}
        <li>{{item}}</li>
    {% end %}
    </ul>

{% end %}

{% block JavaScript %}

{% end %}

index.html

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web


class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.render('home/index.html')

settings = {
    'template_path': 'template',
}

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
], **settings)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(80)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

Tornado默认提供的这些功能其实本质上就是 UIMethod 和
UIModule,我们也可以自定义从而实现类似于Django的simple_tag的功能:

1、定义

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# uimethods.py

def tab(self):
    return 'UIMethod'

uimethods

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from tornado.web import UIModule
from tornado import escape

class custom(UIModule):

    def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
        return escape.xhtml_escape('<h1>wupeiqi</h1>')
        #return escape.xhtml_escape('<h1>wupeiqi</h1>')

uimodules.py

uimodules

2、注册

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web
from tornado.escape import linkify
import uimodules as md
import uimethods as mt

class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.render('index.html')

settings = {
    'template_path': 'template',
    'static_path': 'static',
    'static_url_prefix': '/static/',
    'ui_methods': mt,
    'ui_modules': md,
}

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
], **settings)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(8009)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

main.py

3、使用

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title></title>
    <link href="{{static_url("commons.css")}}" rel="stylesheet" />
</head>
<body>
    <h1>hello</h1>
    {% module custom(123) %}
    {{ tab() }}
</body>

index.html

五、实现功能

1、静态文件

对于静态文件,可以配置静态文件的目录和前段使用时的前缀,并且Tornaodo还支持静态文件缓存。

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web


class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.render('home/index.html')

settings = {
    'template_path': 'template',
    'static_path': 'static',
    'static_url_prefix': '/static/',
}

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
], **settings)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(80)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

main.py

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title></title>
    <link href="{{static_url("commons.css")}}" rel="stylesheet" />
</head>
<body>
    <h1>hello</h1>
</body>
</html>

index.html

备注:静态文件缓存的实现

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def get_content_version(cls, abspath):
        """Returns a version string for the resource at the given path.

        This class method may be overridden by subclasses.  The
        default implementation is a hash of the file's contents.

        .. versionadded:: 3.1
        """
        data = cls.get_content(abspath)
        hasher = hashlib.md5()
        if isinstance(data, bytes):
            hasher.update(data)
        else:
            for chunk in data:
                hasher.update(chunk)
        return hasher.hexdigest()

静态文件缓存源码

2、csrf

Tornado中的夸张请求伪造和Django中的相似,跨站伪造请求(Cross-site
request
forgery)

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settings = {
    "xsrf_cookies": True,
}
application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/", MainHandler),
    (r"/login", LoginHandler),
], **settings)

配置

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<form action="/new_message" method="post">
  {{ xsrf_form_html() }}
  <input type="text" name="message"/>
  <input type="submit" value="Post"/>
</form>

普通表单的使用

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function getCookie(name) {
    var r = document.cookie.match("\\b" + name + "=([^;]*)\\b");
    return r ? r[1] : undefined;
}

jQuery.postJSON = function(url, args, callback) {
    args._xsrf = getCookie("_xsrf");
    $.ajax({url: url, data: $.param(args), dataType: "text", type: "POST",
        success: function(response) {
        callback(eval("(" + response + ")"));
    }});
};

Ajax使用

注:Ajax使用时,本质上就是去获取本地的cookie,携带cookie再来发送请求

3、cookie

Tornado中可以对cookie进行操作,并且还可以对cookie进行签名以放置伪造。

a、基本操作

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class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        if not self.get_cookie("mycookie"):
            self.set_cookie("mycookie", "myvalue")
            self.write("Your cookie was not set yet!")
        else:
            self.write("Your cookie was set!")

Code

b、签名

Cookie 很容易被恶意的客户端伪造。加入你想在 cookie 中保存当前登陆用户的
id 之类的信息,你需要对 cookie 作签名以防止伪造。Tornado 通过
set_secure_cookie 和 get_secure_cookie 方法直接支持了这种功能。
要使用这些方法,你需要在创建应用时提供一个密钥,名字为 cookie_secret。
你可以把它作为一个关键词参数传入应用的设置中:

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class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        if not self.get_secure_cookie("mycookie"):
            self.set_secure_cookie("mycookie", "myvalue")
            self.write("Your cookie was not set yet!")
        else:
            self.write("Your cookie was set!")

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/", MainHandler),
], cookie_secret="61oETzKXQAGaYdkL5gEmGeJJFuYh7EQnp2XdTP1o/Vo=")

Code

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def _create_signature_v1(secret, *parts):
    hash = hmac.new(utf8(secret), digestmod=hashlib.sha1)
    for part in parts:
        hash.update(utf8(part))
    return utf8(hash.hexdigest())


def _create_signature_v2(secret, s):
    hash = hmac.new(utf8(secret), digestmod=hashlib.sha256)
    hash.update(utf8(s))
    return utf8(hash.hexdigest())

内部算法

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def create_signed_value(secret, name, value, version=None, clock=None,
                        key_version=None):
    if version is None:
        version = DEFAULT_SIGNED_VALUE_VERSION
    if clock is None:
        clock = time.time

    timestamp = utf8(str(int(clock())))
    value = base64.b64encode(utf8(value))
    if version == 1:
        signature = _create_signature_v1(secret, name, value, timestamp)
        value = b"|".join([value, timestamp, signature])
        return value
    elif version == 2:
        # The v2 format consists of a version number and a series of
        # length-prefixed fields "%d:%s", the last of which is a
        # signature, all separated by pipes.  All numbers are in
        # decimal format with no leading zeros.  The signature is an
        # HMAC-SHA256 of the whole string up to that point, including
        # the final pipe.
        #
        # The fields are:
        # - format version (i.e. 2; no length prefix)
        # - key version (integer, default is 0)
        # - timestamp (integer seconds since epoch)
        # - name (not encoded; assumed to be ~alphanumeric)
        # - value (base64-encoded)
        # - signature (hex-encoded; no length prefix)
        def format_field(s):
            return utf8("%d:" % len(s)) + utf8(s)
        to_sign = b"|".join([
            b"2",
            format_field(str(key_version or 0)),
            format_field(timestamp),
            format_field(name),
            format_field(value),
            b''])

        if isinstance(secret, dict):
            assert key_version is not None, 'Key version must be set when sign key dict is used'
            assert version >= 2, 'Version must be at least 2 for key version support'
            secret = secret[key_version]

        signature = _create_signature_v2(secret, to_sign)
        return to_sign + signature
    else:
        raise ValueError("Unsupported version %d" % version)

内部算法-加密

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def _decode_signed_value_v1(secret, name, value, max_age_days, clock):
    parts = utf8(value).split(b"|")
    if len(parts) != 3:
        return None
    signature = _create_signature_v1(secret, name, parts[0], parts[1])
    if not _time_independent_equals(parts[2], signature):
        gen_log.warning("Invalid cookie signature %r", value)
        return None
    timestamp = int(parts[1])
    if timestamp < clock() - max_age_days * 86400:
        gen_log.warning("Expired cookie %r", value)
        return None
    if timestamp > clock() + 31 * 86400:
        # _cookie_signature does not hash a delimiter between the
        # parts of the cookie, so an attacker could transfer trailing
        # digits from the payload to the timestamp without altering the
        # signature.  For backwards compatibility, sanity-check timestamp
        # here instead of modifying _cookie_signature.
        gen_log.warning("Cookie timestamp in future; possible tampering %r",
                        value)
        return None
    if parts[1].startswith(b"0"):
        gen_log.warning("Tampered cookie %r", value)
        return None
    try:
        return base64.b64decode(parts[0])
    except Exception:
        return None


def _decode_fields_v2(value):
    def _consume_field(s):
        length, _, rest = s.partition(b':')
        n = int(length)
        field_value = rest[:n]
        # In python 3, indexing bytes returns small integers; we must
        # use a slice to get a byte string as in python 2.
        if rest[n:n + 1] != b'|':
            raise ValueError("malformed v2 signed value field")
        rest = rest[n + 1:]
        return field_value, rest

    rest = value[2:]  # remove version number
    key_version, rest = _consume_field(rest)
    timestamp, rest = _consume_field(rest)
    name_field, rest = _consume_field(rest)
    value_field, passed_sig = _consume_field(rest)
    return int(key_version), timestamp, name_field, value_field, passed_sig


def _decode_signed_value_v2(secret, name, value, max_age_days, clock):
    try:
        key_version, timestamp, name_field, value_field, passed_sig = _decode_fields_v2(value)
    except ValueError:
        return None
    signed_string = value[:-len(passed_sig)]

    if isinstance(secret, dict):
        try:
            secret = secret[key_version]
        except KeyError:
            return None

    expected_sig = _create_signature_v2(secret, signed_string)
    if not _time_independent_equals(passed_sig, expected_sig):
        return None
    if name_field != utf8(name):
        return None
    timestamp = int(timestamp)
    if timestamp < clock() - max_age_days * 86400:
        # The signature has expired.
        return None
    try:
        return base64.b64decode(value_field)
    except Exception:
        return None


def get_signature_key_version(value):
    value = utf8(value)
    version = _get_version(value)
    if version < 2:
        return None
    try:
        key_version, _, _, _, _ = _decode_fields_v2(value)
    except ValueError:
        return None

    return key_version

内部算法-解密

签名Cookie的本质是:

写cookie过程:

  • 将值进行base64加密
  • 对除值以外的内容进行签名,哈希算法(无法逆向解析)
  • 拼接 签名 + 加密值

读cookie过程:

  • 读取 签名 + 加密值
  • 对签名进行验证
  • base64解密,获取值内容

注:许多API验证机制和安全cookie的实现机制相同。

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web


class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):

    def get(self):
        login_user = self.get_secure_cookie("login_user", None)
        if login_user:
            self.write(login_user)
        else:
            self.redirect('/login')


class LoginHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.current_user()

        self.render('login.html', **{'status': ''})

    def post(self, *args, **kwargs):

        username = self.get_argument('name')
        password = self.get_argument('pwd')
        if username == 'wupeiqi' and password == '123':
            self.set_secure_cookie('login_user', '武沛齐')
            self.redirect('/')
        else:
            self.render('login.html', **{'status': '用户名或密码错误'})

settings = {
    'template_path': 'template',
    'static_path': 'static',
    'static_url_prefix': '/static/',
    'cookie_secret': 'aiuasdhflashjdfoiuashdfiuh'
}

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
    (r"/login", LoginHandler),
], **settings)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(8888)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

Demo-基于cookie进行用户验证

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web

class BaseHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):

    def get_current_user(self):
        return self.get_secure_cookie("login_user")

class MainHandler(BaseHandler):

    @tornado.web.authenticated
    def get(self):
        login_user = self.current_user
        self.write(login_user)



class LoginHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.current_user()

        self.render('login.html', **{'status': ''})

    def post(self, *args, **kwargs):

        username = self.get_argument('name')
        password = self.get_argument('pwd')
        if username == 'wupeiqi' and password == '123':
            self.set_secure_cookie('login_user', '武沛齐')
            self.redirect('/')
        else:
            self.render('login.html', **{'status': '用户名或密码错误'})

settings = {
    'template_path': 'template',
    'static_path': 'static',
    'static_url_prefix': '/static/',
    'cookie_secret': 'aiuasdhflashjdfoiuashdfiuh',
    'login_url': '/login'
}

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
    (r"/login", LoginHandler),
], **settings)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(8888)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

Demo-Toando内部提供基于cookie进行用户验证

4、Ajax上传文件

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title></title>
</head>
<body>
    <input type="file" id="img" />
    <input type="button" onclick="UploadFile();" />
    <script>
        function UploadFile(){
            var fileObj = document.getElementById("img").files[0];

            var form = new FormData();
            form.append("k1", "v1");
            form.append("fff", fileObj);

            var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
            xhr.open("post", '/index', true);
            xhr.send(form);
        }
    </script>
</body>
</html>

Html

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web


class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):

        self.render('index.html')

    def post(self, *args, **kwargs):
        file_metas = self.request.files["fff"]
        # print(file_metas)
        for meta in file_metas:
            file_name = meta['filename']
            with open(file_name,'wb') as up:
                up.write(meta['body'])

settings = {
    'template_path': 'template',
}

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
], **settings)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(8000)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

Python

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var fileObj = $("#img")[0].files[0];
var form = new FormData();
form.append("k1", "v1");
form.append("fff", fileObj);

$.ajax({
    type:'POST',
    url: '/index',
    data: form,
    processData: false,  // tell jQuery not to process the data
    contentType: false,  // tell jQuery not to set contentType
    success: function(arg){
        console.log(arg);
    }
})

jQuery Ajax Upload

六、扩展功能

1、自定义Session

a.知识储备

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

class Foo(object):

    def __getitem__(self, key):
        print  '__getitem__',key

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        print '__setitem__',key,value

    def __delitem__(self, key):
        print '__delitem__',key



obj = Foo()
result = obj['k1']
#obj['k2'] = 'wupeiqi'
#del obj['k1']

b.session实现机制

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web
from hashlib import sha1
import os, time

session_container = {}

create_session_id = lambda: sha1('%s%s' % (os.urandom(16), time.time())).hexdigest()


class Session(object):

    session_id = "__sessionId__"

    def __init__(self, request):
        session_value = request.get_cookie(Session.session_id)
        if not session_value:
            self._id = create_session_id()
        else:
            self._id = session_value
        request.set_cookie(Session.session_id, self._id)

    def __getitem__(self, key):
        return session_container[self._id][key]

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        if session_container.has_key(self._id):
            session_container[self._id][key] = value
        else:
            session_container[self._id] = {key: value}

    def __delitem__(self, key):
        del session_container[self._id][key]


class BaseHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):

    def initialize(self):
        # my_session['k1']访问 __getitem__ 方法
        self.my_session = Session(self)


class MainHandler(BaseHandler):

    def get(self):
        print self.my_session['c_user']
        print self.my_session['c_card']
        self.write('index')

class LoginHandler(BaseHandler):

    def get(self):
        self.render('login.html', **{'status': ''})

    def post(self, *args, **kwargs):

        username = self.get_argument('name')
        password = self.get_argument('pwd')
        if username == 'wupeiqi' and password == '123':

            self.my_session['c_user'] = 'wupeiqi'
            self.my_session['c_card'] = '12312312309823012'

            self.redirect('/index')
        else:
            self.render('login.html', **{'status': '用户名或密码错误'})

settings = {
    'template_path': 'template',
    'static_path': 'static',
    'static_url_prefix': '/static/',
    'cookie_secret': 'aiuasdhflashjdfoiuashdfiuh',
    'login_url': '/login'
}

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
    (r"/login", LoginHandler),
], **settings)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(8888)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

c. Session框架

银河国际点击登录 45银河国际点击登录 46

#!/usr/bin/env python
#coding:utf-8

import sys
import math
from bisect import bisect


if sys.version_info >= (2, 5):
    import hashlib
    md5_constructor = hashlib.md5
else:
    import md5
    md5_constructor = md5.new


class HashRing(object):
    """一致性哈希"""

    def __init__(self,nodes):
        '''初始化
        nodes : 初始化的节点,其中包含节点已经节点对应的权重
                默认每一个节点有32个虚拟节点
                对于权重,通过多创建虚拟节点来实现
                如:nodes = [
                        {'host':'127.0.0.1:8000','weight':1},
                        {'host':'127.0.0.1:8001','weight':2},
                        {'host':'127.0.0.1:8002','weight':1},
                    ]
        '''

        self.ring = dict()
        self._sorted_keys = []

        self.total_weight = 0

        self.__generate_circle(nodes)



    def __generate_circle(self,nodes):
        for node_info in nodes:
            self.total_weight += node_info.get('weight',1)

        for node_info in nodes:
            weight = node_info.get('weight',1)
            node = node_info.get('host',None)

            virtual_node_count = math.floor((32*len(nodes)*weight) / self.total_weight)
            for i in xrange(0,int(virtual_node_count)):
                key = self.gen_key_thirty_two( '%s-%s' % (node, i) )
                if self._sorted_keys.__contains__(key):
                    raise Exception('该节点已经存在.')
                self.ring[key] = node
                self._sorted_keys.append(key)

    def add_node(self,node):
        ''' 新建节点
        node : 要添加的节点,格式为:{'host':'127.0.0.1:8002','weight':1},其中第一个元素表示节点,第二个元素表示该节点的权重。
        '''
        node = node.get('host',None)
        if not node:
                raise Exception('节点的地址不能为空.')

        weight = node.get('weight',1)

        self.total_weight += weight
        nodes_count = len(self._sorted_keys) + 1

        virtual_node_count = math.floor((32 * nodes_count * weight) / self.total_weight)
        for i in xrange(0,int(virtual_node_count)):
            key = self.gen_key_thirty_two( '%s-%s' % (node, i) )
            if self._sorted_keys.__contains__(key):
                raise Exception('该节点已经存在.')
            self.ring[key] = node
            self._sorted_keys.append(key)

    def remove_node(self,node):
        ''' 移除节点
        node : 要移除的节点 '127.0.0.1:8000'
        '''
        for key,value in self.ring.items():
            if value == node:
                del self.ring[key]
                self._sorted_keys.remove(key)

    def get_node(self,string_key):
        '''获取 string_key 所在的节点'''
        pos = self.get_node_pos(string_key)
        if pos is None:
            return None
        return self.ring[ self._sorted_keys[pos]].split(':')

    def get_node_pos(self,string_key):
        '''获取 string_key 所在的节点的索引'''
        if not self.ring:
            return None

        key = self.gen_key_thirty_two(string_key)
        nodes = self._sorted_keys
        pos = bisect(nodes, key)
        return pos

    def gen_key_thirty_two(self, key):

        m = md5_constructor()
        m.update(key)
        return long(m.hexdigest(), 16)

    def gen_key_sixteen(self,key):

        b_key = self.__hash_digest(key)
        return self.__hash_val(b_key, lambda x: x)

    def __hash_val(self, b_key, entry_fn):
        return (( b_key[entry_fn(3)] << 24)|(b_key[entry_fn(2)] << 16)|(b_key[entry_fn(1)] << 8)| b_key[entry_fn(0)] )

    def __hash_digest(self, key):
        m = md5_constructor()
        m.update(key)
        return map(ord, m.digest())


"""
nodes = [
    {'host':'127.0.0.1:8000','weight':1},
    {'host':'127.0.0.1:8001','weight':2},
    {'host':'127.0.0.1:8002','weight':1},
]

ring = HashRing(nodes)
result = ring.get_node('98708798709870987098709879087')
print result

"""

一致性哈希

银河国际点击登录 47银河国际点击登录 48

from hashlib import sha1
import os, time


create_session_id = lambda: sha1('%s%s' % (os.urandom(16), time.time())).hexdigest()


class Session(object):

    session_id = "__sessionId__"

    def __init__(self, request):
        session_value = request.get_cookie(Session.session_id)
        if not session_value:
            self._id = create_session_id()
        else:
            self._id = session_value
        request.set_cookie(Session.session_id, self._id)

    def __getitem__(self, key):
        # 根据 self._id ,在一致性哈西中找到其对应的服务器IP
        # 找到相对应的redis服务器,如: r = redis.StrictRedis(host='localhost', port=6379, db=0)
        # 使用python redis api 链接
        # 获取数据,即:
        # return self._redis.hget(self._id, name)

    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        # 根据 self._id ,在一致性哈西中找到其对应的服务器IP
        # 使用python redis api 链接
        # 设置session
        # self._redis.hset(self._id, name, value)


    def __delitem__(self, key):
        # 根据 self._id 找到相对应的redis服务器
        # 使用python redis api 链接
        # 删除,即:
        return self._redis.hdel(self._id, name)

Session

   

2、自定义模型版定

模型绑定有两个主要功能:

  • 自动生成html表单
  • 用户输入验证

在之前学习的Django中为程序员提供了非常便捷的模型绑定功能,但是在Tornado中,一切需要自己动手!!!、

银河国际点击登录 49银河国际点击登录 50

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title></title>
    <link href="{{static_url("commons.css")}}" rel="stylesheet" />
</head>
<body>
    <h1>hello</h1>
    <form action="/index" method="post">

        <p>hostname: <input type="text" name="host" /> </p>
        <p>ip: <input type="text" name="ip" /> </p>
        <p>port: <input type="text" name="port" /> </p>
        <p>phone: <input type="text" name="phone" /> </p>
        <input type="submit" />
    </form>
</body>
</html>

html

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web
from hashlib import sha1
import os, time
import re


class MainForm(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.host = "(.*)"
        self.ip = "^(25[0-5]|2[0-4]\d|[0-1]?\d?\d)(\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4]\d|[0-1]?\d?\d)){3}$"
        self.port = '(\d+)'
        self.phone = '^1[3|4|5|8][0-9]\d{8}$'

    def check_valid(self, request):
        form_dict = self.__dict__
        for key, regular in form_dict.items():
            post_value = request.get_argument(key)
            # 让提交的数据 和 定义的正则表达式进行匹配
            ret = re.match(regular, post_value)
            print key,ret,post_value


class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.render('index.html')
    def post(self, *args, **kwargs):
        obj = MainForm()
        result = obj.check_valid(self)
        self.write('ok')



settings = {
    'template_path': 'template',
    'static_path': 'static',
    'static_url_prefix': '/static/',
    'cookie_secret': 'aiuasdhflashjdfoiuashdfiuh',
    'login_url': '/login'
}

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
], **settings)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(8888)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

由于请求的验证时,需要考虑是否可以为空以及正则表达式的复用,所以:

银河国际点击登录 51银河国际点击登录 52

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web
import re


class Field(object):

    def __init__(self, error_msg_dict, required):
        self.id_valid = False
        self.value = None
        self.error = None
        self.name = None
        self.error_msg = error_msg_dict
        self.required = required

    def match(self, name, value):
        self.name = name

        if not self.required:
            self.id_valid = True
            self.value = value
        else:
            if not value:
                if self.error_msg.get('required', None):
                    self.error = self.error_msg['required']
                else:
                    self.error = "%s is required" % name
            else:
                ret = re.match(self.REGULAR, value)
                if ret:
                    self.id_valid = True
                    self.value = ret.group()
                else:
                    if self.error_msg.get('valid', None):
                        self.error = self.error_msg['valid']
                    else:
                        self.error = "%s is invalid" % name


class IPField(Field):
    REGULAR = "^(25[0-5]|2[0-4]\d|[0-1]?\d?\d)(\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4]\d|[0-1]?\d?\d)){3}$"

    def __init__(self, error_msg_dict=None, required=True):

        error_msg = {}  # {'required': 'IP不能为空', 'valid': 'IP格式错误'}
        if error_msg_dict:
            error_msg.update(error_msg_dict)

        super(IPField, self).__init__(error_msg_dict=error_msg, required=required)


class IntegerField(Field):
    REGULAR = "^\d+$"

    def __init__(self, error_msg_dict=None, required=True):
        error_msg = {'required': '数字不能为空', 'valid': '数字格式错误'}
        if error_msg_dict:
            error_msg.update(error_msg_dict)

        super(IntegerField, self).__init__(error_msg_dict=error_msg, required=required)


class CheckBoxField(Field):

    def __init__(self, error_msg_dict=None, required=True):
        error_msg = {}  # {'required': 'IP不能为空', 'valid': 'IP格式错误'}
        if error_msg_dict:
            error_msg.update(error_msg_dict)

        super(CheckBoxField, self).__init__(error_msg_dict=error_msg, required=required)

    def match(self, name, value):
        self.name = name

        if not self.required:
            self.id_valid = True
            self.value = value
        else:
            if not value:
                if self.error_msg.get('required', None):
                    self.error = self.error_msg['required']
                else:
                    self.error = "%s is required" % name
            else:
                if isinstance(name, list):
                    self.id_valid = True
                    self.value = value
                else:
                    if self.error_msg.get('valid', None):
                        self.error = self.error_msg['valid']
                    else:
                        self.error = "%s is invalid" % name


class FileField(Field):
    REGULAR = "^(\w+\.pdf)|(\w+\.mp3)|(\w+\.py)$"

    def __init__(self, error_msg_dict=None, required=True):
        error_msg = {}  # {'required': '数字不能为空', 'valid': '数字格式错误'}
        if error_msg_dict:
            error_msg.update(error_msg_dict)

        super(FileField, self).__init__(error_msg_dict=error_msg, required=required)

    def match(self, name, value):
        self.name = name
        self.value = []
        if not self.required:
            self.id_valid = True
            self.value = value
        else:
            if not value:
                if self.error_msg.get('required', None):
                    self.error = self.error_msg['required']
                else:
                    self.error = "%s is required" % name
            else:
                m = re.compile(self.REGULAR)
                if isinstance(value, list):
                    for file_name in value:
                        r = m.match(file_name)
                        if r:
                            self.value.append(r.group())
                            self.id_valid = True
                        else:
                            self.id_valid = False
                            if self.error_msg.get('valid', None):
                                self.error = self.error_msg['valid']
                            else:
                                self.error = "%s is invalid" % name
                            break
                else:
                    if self.error_msg.get('valid', None):
                        self.error = self.error_msg['valid']
                    else:
                        self.error = "%s is invalid" % name

    def save(self, request, upload_path=""):

        file_metas = request.files[self.name]
        for meta in file_metas:
            file_name = meta['filename']
            with open(file_name,'wb') as up:
                up.write(meta['body'])


class Form(object):

    def __init__(self):
        self.value_dict = {}
        self.error_dict = {}
        self.valid_status = True

    def validate(self, request, depth=10, pre_key=""):

        self.initialize()
        self.__valid(self, request, depth, pre_key)

    def initialize(self):
        pass

    def __valid(self, form_obj, request, depth, pre_key):
        """
        验证用户表单请求的数据
        :param form_obj: Form对象(Form派生类的对象)
        :param request: Http请求上下文(用于从请求中获取用户提交的值)
        :param depth: 对Form内容的深度的支持
        :param pre_key: Html中name属性值的前缀(多层Form时,内部递归时设置,无需理会)
        :return: 是否验证通过,True:验证成功;False:验证失败
        """

        depth -= 1
        if depth < 0:
            return None
        form_field_dict = form_obj.__dict__
        for key, field_obj in form_field_dict.items():
            print key,field_obj
            if isinstance(field_obj, Form) or isinstance(field_obj, Field):
                if isinstance(field_obj, Form):
                    # 获取以key开头的所有的值,以参数的形式传至
                    self.__valid(field_obj, request, depth, key)
                    continue
                if pre_key:
                    key = "%s.%s" % (pre_key, key)

                if isinstance(field_obj, CheckBoxField):
                    post_value = request.get_arguments(key, None)
                elif isinstance(field_obj, FileField):
                    post_value = []
                    file_list = request.request.files.get(key, None)
                    for file_item in file_list:
                        post_value.append(file_item['filename'])
                else:
                    post_value = request.get_argument(key, None)

                print post_value
                # 让提交的数据 和 定义的正则表达式进行匹配
                field_obj.match(key, post_value)
                if field_obj.id_valid:
                    self.value_dict[key] = field_obj.value
                else:
                    self.error_dict[key] = field_obj.error
                    self.valid_status = False


class ListForm(object):
    def __init__(self, form_type):
        self.form_type = form_type
        self.valid_status = True
        self.value_dict = {}
        self.error_dict = {}

    def validate(self, request):
        name_list = request.request.arguments.keys() + request.request.files.keys()
        index = 0
        flag = False
        while True:
            pre_key = "[%d]" % index
            for name in name_list:
                if name.startswith(pre_key):
                    flag = True
                    break
            if flag:
                form_obj = self.form_type()
                form_obj.validate(request, depth=10, pre_key="[%d]" % index)
                if form_obj.valid_status:
                    self.value_dict[index] = form_obj.value_dict
                else:
                    self.error_dict[index] = form_obj.error_dict
                    self.valid_status = False
            else:
                break

            index += 1
            flag = False


class MainForm(Form):

    def __init__(self):
        # self.ip = IPField(required=True)
        # self.port = IntegerField(required=True)
        # self.new_ip = IPField(required=True)
        # self.second = SecondForm()
        self.fff = FileField(required=True)
        super(MainForm, self).__init__()

#
# class SecondForm(Form):
#
#     def __init__(self):
#         self.ip = IPField(required=True)
#         self.new_ip = IPField(required=True)
#
#         super(SecondForm, self).__init__()


class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        self.render('index.html')
    def post(self, *args, **kwargs):
        # for i in  dir(self.request):
        #     print i
        # print self.request.arguments
        # print self.request.files
        # print self.request.query
        # name_list = self.request.arguments.keys() + self.request.files.keys()
        # print name_list

        # list_form = ListForm(MainForm)
        # list_form.validate(self)
        #
        # print list_form.valid_status
        # print list_form.value_dict
        # print list_form.error_dict

        # obj = MainForm()
        # obj.validate(self)
        #
        # print "验证结果:", obj.valid_status
        # print "符合验证结果:", obj.value_dict
        # print "错误信息:"
        # for key, item in obj.error_dict.items():
        #     print key,item
        # print self.get_arguments('favor'),type(self.get_arguments('favor'))
        # print self.get_argument('favor'),type(self.get_argument('favor'))
        # print type(self.get_argument('fff')),self.get_argument('fff')
        # print self.request.files
        # obj = MainForm()
        # obj.validate(self)
        # print obj.valid_status
        # print obj.value_dict
        # print obj.error_dict
        # print self.request,type(self.request)
        # obj.fff.save(self.request)
        # from tornado.httputil import HTTPServerRequest
        # name_list = self.request.arguments.keys() + self.request.files.keys()
        # print name_list
        # print self.request.files,type(self.request.files)
        # print len(self.request.files.get('fff'))

        # obj = MainForm()
        # obj.validate(self)
        # print obj.valid_status
        # print obj.value_dict
        # print obj.error_dict
        # obj.fff.save(self.request)
        self.write('ok')



settings = {
    'template_path': 'template',
    'static_path': 'static',
    'static_url_prefix': '/static/',
    'cookie_secret': 'aiuasdhflashjdfoiuashdfiuh',
    'login_url': '/login'
}

application = tornado.web.Application([
    (r"/index", MainHandler),
], **settings)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    application.listen(8888)
    tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()

Form验证框架

实现登录:

view.py

import tornado.ioloop
import tornado.web

# 视图
class MainHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        #d={"name":"yuan","l":[123,345,666],"info":{"name":"egon","age":"123"}}
        self.render("templates/index.html",**d)

    def post(self, *args, **kwargs):
        pass

class LoginHandler(tornado.web.RequestHandler):
    def get(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.render("templates/login.html")

    def post(self, *args, **kwargs):
        user=self.get_argument("user")
        pwd=self.get_argument("pwd")
        if user=="alex" and pwd=="123":
            self.redirect("/index")
            print("123ok")
        else:
            self.render("templates/login.html")

login.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>

<h4>登录页面</h4>


<form action="" method="post">
    <input type="text" name="user">
    <input type="password" name="pwd">
    <input type="submit">
</form>


</body>
</html>

 

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